Taxon DOI
Werkman and Gillen 1932 emend. Sakazaki 1974 (Approved Lists 1980)
Taxonomic Rank
Nomenclatural Taxonomy [1980-2016]
Incertae sedis taxa are placed using SOSCC (Garrity and Lilburn 2008)
Taxon RecordName Record
Rahn 1984 emend. Adeolu et al. 2016
(Braak 1928) Werkman and Gillen 1932 (Approved Lists 1980)
(Young et al. 1971) Farmer 1982
Ko et al. 2015
Brenner et al. 1993
Oberhettinger et al. 2020
(Burkey 1928) Werkman and Gillen 1932 (Approved Lists 1980)
Ribeiro et al. 2017
Brenner et al. 1993
Brenner et al. 2000
Frederiksen 1970 (Approved Lists 1980)
Brenner et al. 2000
Clermont et al. 2015
Ribeiro et al. 2017
Schauer et al. 1996
Brenner et al. 1993
corrig. Ribeiro et al. 2021
Brenner et al. 1993
Brenner et al. 1993
None 2015
Type Status
The taxonomic placement of this genus within the root Universal Root.

  Woese et al. 1990
  (None 2015) Woese et al. 1990
  (sic) Garrity et al. 2021
  Garrity et al. 2005 emend. Williams and Kelly 2013
  (Garrity and Holt 2001) Adeolu et al. 2016
  Rahn 1984 emend. Adeolu et al. 2016
  Werkman and Gillen 1932 emend. Sakazaki 1974 (Approved Lists 1980)

The taxonomy from the rank of class and below is based upon currently published taxonomic opinion. For a complete taxonomy, refer to The Taxonomic Outline of Bacteria and Archaea, Release 7.7.
When referring to this Abstract, please use its Digital Object Identifier and cite NamesforLife.
Taxon Abstract for the genus Citrobacter Werkman and Gillen 1932 emend. Sakazaki 1974 (Approved Lists 1980). NamesforLife, LLC. Retrieved .
This information was last reviewed on March 2, 2021.


  1. Ribeiro TG, Izdebski R, Urbanowicz P, Carmeli Y, Gniadkowski M, Peixe L. Citrobacter telavivum sp. nov. with chromosomal mcr-9 from hospitalized patients. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2021; 40:123-131. [PubMed].
  2. Adeolu M, Alnajar S, Naushad S, Gupta RS. Genome based phylogeny and taxonomy of the "Enterobacteriales": proposal for Enterobacterales ord. nov. divided into the families Enterobacteriaceae, Erwiniaceae fam. nov., Pectobacteriaceae fam. nov., Yersiniaceae fam. nov., Hafniaceae fam. nov., Morganellaceae fam. nov., and Budviciaceae fam. nov. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2016; 66:5575-5599. [PubMed].
  3. Ko KS, Choi J-Y, Kim J, Park MK. Citrobacter bitternis sp. nov. isolated from bitterns. Curr Microbiol 2015; 70:894-897. [PubMed].
  4. Ribeiro T-G, Clermont D, Branquinho R, Machado EMP, Peixe L, Brisse S. Citrobacter europaeus sp. nov., a novel Citrobacter species isolated from water and human faecal samples. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2017; 67:170-173. [PubMed].
  5. Farmer JJ. The genus Citrobacter. In: Starr MP, Stolp H, Trüper HG, Balows A, Schlegel HG (eds), The Prokaryotes, a Handbook on Habitants, Isolation, and Identification of Bacteria, Springer-Verlag, New York; Berlin, 1981, p. 1140-1147.
  6. Oberhettinger P, Schüle L, Marschal M, Bezdan D, Ossowski S, Dörfel D, Vogel W, Rossen JW, Willmann M, Peter S. Description of Citrobacter cronae sp. nov., isolated from human rectal swabs and stool samples. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2020; 70:2998-3003. [PubMed].
  7. Ribeiro TG, Gonçalves BR, da Silva MS, Novais Â, Machado E, Carriço JA, Peixe L. Citrobacter portucalensis sp. nov., isolated from an aquatic sample. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2017; 67:3513-3517. [PubMed].
  8. Brenner DJ, Grimont PAD, Steigerwalt AG, Fanning GR, Ageron E, Riddle CF. Classification of citrobacteria by DNA hybridization: designation of Citrobacter farmeri sp. nov., Citrobacter youngae sp. nov., Citrobacter braakii sp. nov., Citrobacter werkmanii sp. nov., Citrobacter sedlakii sp. nov., and three unnamed Citrobacter genomospecies. Int J Syst Bacteriol 1993; 43:645-658. [PubMed].
  9. Schauer DB, Zabel BA, Pedraza IF, O'Hara CM, Steigerwalt AG, Brenner DJ. Genetic and biochemical characterization of Citrobacter rodentium sp. nov. J Clin Microbiol 1995; 33:2064-2068. [PubMed].
  10. Frederiksen W. Citrobacter koseri (n. sp.), a new species within the genus Citrobacter, with a comment on the taxonomic position of Citrobacter intermedium (Werkman and Gillen). Publication of the Faculty of Sciences University JE Purkyne, Brno 1970; 47:89-94.
  11. Clermont D, Motreff L, Passet V, Fernandez J-C, Bizet C, Brisse S. Multilocus sequence analysis of the genus Citrobacter and description of Citrobacter pasteurii sp. nov. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2015; 65:1486-1490. [PubMed].
  12. Werkman CH, Gillen GF. Bacteria Producing Trimethylene Glycol. J Bacteriol 1932; 23:167-182. [PubMed].
  13. Brenner DJ, O'Hara CM, Grimont PAD, Janda JM, Falsen E, Aldova E, Ageron E, Schindler J, Abbott SL, Steigerwalt AG. Biochemical identification of Citrobacter species defined by DNA hybridization and description of Citrobacter gillenii sp. nov. (formerly Citrobacter genomospecies 10) and Citrobacter murliniae sp. nov. (formerly Citrobacter genomospecies 11). J Clin Microbiol 1999; 37:2619-2624. [PubMed].
  14. No reference is available 2015