Taxon DOI
Beijerinck 1889 (Approved Lists 1980)
Taxonomic Rank
Nomenclatural Taxonomy [1980-2016]
Incertae sedis taxa are placed using SOSCC (Garrity and Lilburn 2008)
Taxon RecordName Record
Véron 1965 (Approved Lists 1980)
(Cohn 1878) Beijerinck 1889 (Approved Lists 1980)
Lo et al. 2014
Wang et al. 2017
Labella et al. 2019
Reichelt et al. 1979 (Approved Lists 1980)
Lucena et al. 2011
Seo et al. 2005
Liu et al. 2014
Yoshizawa et al. 2009
Weerawongwiwat et al. 2021
Kim et al. 2011
Hilgarth et al. 2018
Wang et al. 2019
corrig. (Love et al. 1982) Smith et al. 1991
(Beijerinck 1889) Reichelt and Baumann 1973 (Approved Lists 1980) pro synon. Vibrio fischeri (Beijerinck 1889) Lehmann and Neumann 1896 (Approved Lists 1980)
Seo et al. 2005
Kim et al. 2010
Machado et al. 2015
Park et al. 2006
Rivas et al. 2006
Okuzumi et al. 1994
(Onarheim et al. 1995) Urakawa et al. 1999
(Johnson and Weisrock 1969) Ivanova et al. 2004
Chimetto et al. 2010
Ast et al. 2007
Boisvert et al. 1967 (Approved Lists 1980)
Yoon et al. 2005
(ex Bang et al. 1978) Harwood et al. 1980
Enciso-Ibarra et al. 2020
Jung et al. 2007
Labella et al. 2019
Deep et al. 2015
Figge et al. 2015
Nogi et al. 1998
Li et al. 2017
Thompson et al. 2005
Li et al. 2019
Moreira et al. 2015
Gomez-Gil et al. 2016
Gomez-Gil et al. 2011
Labella et al. 2017
None 2015
Type Status
The taxonomic placement of this genus within the root Universal Root.

  Woese et al. 1990
  (None 2015) Woese et al. 1990
  (sic) Garrity et al. 2021
  Garrity et al. 2005 emend. Williams and Kelly 2013
  Garrity and Holt 2001
  Véron 1965 (Approved Lists 1980)
  Beijerinck 1889 (Approved Lists 1980)

The taxonomy from the rank of class and below is based upon currently published taxonomic opinion. For a complete taxonomy, refer to The Taxonomic Outline of Bacteria and Archaea, Release 7.7.
When referring to this Abstract, please use its Digital Object Identifier and cite NamesforLife.
Taxon Abstract for the genus Photobacterium Beijerinck 1889 (Approved Lists 1980). NamesforLife, LLC. Retrieved .
This information was last reviewed on November 3, 2021.


  1. Kuever J, Rainey FA, Widdel F. Family I. Desulfovibrionaceae fam. nov. In: Garrity GM, Brenner DJ, Krieg NR, Staley JT (eds), Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, Second Edition, Volume 2, Part C, Springer, New York, 2005, p. 926.
  2. Kim Y-O, Kim K-K, Park S, Kang S-J, Lee J-H, Oh T-K, Yoon J-H. Photobacterium gaetbulicola sp. nov., a lipolytic bacterium isolated from a tidal flat sediment. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2010; 60:2587-2592. [PubMed].
  3. Rivas R, García-Fraile P, Mateos PF, Martínez-Molina E, Velázquez E. Photobacterium halotolerans sp. nov., isolated from Lake Martel in Spain. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2006; 56:1067-1071. [PubMed].
  4. Beijerinck MW. Le Photobacterium luminosum, Bactérie lumineuse de la Mer du Nord. Arch Néer d Sci Exactes 1889; 23:401-415.
  5. Park YD, Baik KS, Seong CN, Bae KS, Kim S, Chun J. Photobacterium ganghwense sp. nov., a halophilic bacterium isolated from sea water. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2006; 56:745-749. [PubMed].
  6. Labella AM, Castro MD, Manchado M, Lucena T, Arahal DR, Borrego JJ. Photobacterium malacitanum sp. nov., and Photobacterium andalusiense sp. nov., two new bacteria isolated from diseased farmed fish in Southern Spain. Syst Appl Microbiol 2018; 41:444-451. [PubMed].
  7. Yoshizawa S, Wada M, Kita-Tsukamoto K, Yokota A, Kogure K. Photobacterium aquimaris sp. nov., a luminous marine bacterium isolated from seawater. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2009; 59:1438-1442. [PubMed].
  8. Reichelt JL, Baumann P, Baumann L. Study of genetic relationships among marine species of the genera Beneckea and Photobacterium by means of in vitro DNA/DNA hybridization. Arch Microbiol 1976; 110:101-120. [PubMed].
  9. Boisvert H, Chatelain R, Bassot JM. Étude d'un Photobacterium isolé de l'organe lumineux de poissons Leiognathidae. Ann Inst Pasteur (Paris) 1967; 112:520-524. [PubMed].
  10. Smith SK, Sutton DC, Fuerst JA, Reichelt JL. Evaluation of the genus Listonella and reassignment of Listonella damsela (Love et al.) MacDonell and Colwell to the genus Photobacterium as Photobacterium damsela comb. nov. with an emended description. Int J Syst Bacteriol 1991; 41:529-534. [PubMed].
  11. Ast JC, Cleenwerck I, Engelbeen K, Urbanczyk H, Thompson FL, De Vos P, Dunlap PV. Photobacterium kishitanii sp. nov., a luminous marine bacterium symbiotic with deep-sea fishes. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2007; 57:2073-2078. [PubMed].
  12. Lucena T, Muvira MA, Pascual J, Garay E, Macián MC, Arahal DR, Pujalte MJ. Photobacterium aphoticum sp. nov., isolated from coastal water. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2011; 61:1579-1584. [PubMed].
  13. Reichelt JL, Baumann P. Taxonomy of the marine, luminous bacteria. Arch Mikrobiol 1973; 94:283-330.
  14. Nogi Y, Masui N, Kato C. Photobacterium profundum sp. nov., a new, moderately barophilic bacterial species isolated from a deep-sea sediment. Extremophiles 1998; 2:1-7. [PubMed].
  15. Yang S-J, Kim B-Y, Chun J. Rejection of reclassification of Lactobacillus kimchii and Lactobacillus bobalius as later subjective synonyms of Lactobacillus paralimentarius using comparative genomics. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2017; 67:4515-4525. [PubMed].
  16. Ivanova EP, Flavier S, Christen R. Phylogenetic relationships among marine Alteromonas-like proteobacteria: emended description of the family Alteromonadaceae and proposal of Pseudoalteromonadaceae fam. nov., Colwelliaceae fam. nov., Shewanellaceae fam. nov., Moritellaceae fam. nov., Ferrimonadaceae fam. nov., Idiomarinaceae fam. nov. and Psychromonadaceae fam. nov. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2004; 54:1773-1788. [PubMed].
  17. Hilgarth M, Fuertes S, Ehrmann M, Vogel RF. Photobacterium carnosum sp. nov., isolated from spoiled modified atmosphere packaged poultry meat. Syst Appl Microbiol 2018; 41:44-50. [PubMed].
  18. Wang X, Wang Y, Yang X, Sun H, Li B, Zhang X-H. Photobacterium alginatilyticum sp. nov., a marine bacterium isolated from bottom seawater. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2017; 67:1912-1917. [PubMed].
  19. Lo N, Jin HM, Jeon CO. Photobacterium aestuarii sp. nov., a marine bacterium isolated from a tidal flat. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2014; 64:625-630. [PubMed].
  20. Urakawa H, Kita-Tsukamoto K, Ohwada K. Reassessment of the taxonomic position of Vibrio iliopiscarius (Onarheim et al. 1994) and proposal for Photobacterium iliopiscarium comb. nov. Int J Syst Bacteriol 1999; 49:257-260. [PubMed].
  21. Gomez-Gil B, Roque A, Rotllant G, Romalde JL, Doce A, Eggermont M, Defoirdt T. Photobacterium sanguinicancri sp. nov. isolated from marine animals. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 2016; 109:817-825. [PubMed].
  22. Harwood CS, Bang SS, Baumann P, Nealson KH. Photobacterium logei sp. nov., nom. rev.; Beneckea nereida sp. nov., nom. rev.; and Benekea gazogenes sp. nov., nom. rev. Int J Syst Bacteriol 1980; 30:655-655.
  23. Li Y, Zhou M, Wang F., Wang E.T., Du Z., Wu C., Zhang Z., Liu W, Xie Z. Photobacterium proteolyticum sp. nov., a protease-producing bacterium isolated from ocean sediments of Laizhou Bay. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2017; 67:1835-1840. [PubMed].
  24. Moreira APB, Duytschaever G, Tonon LAC, Fróes AM, de Oliveira LS, Amado-Filho GM, Francini-Filho RB, De Vos P, Swings J, Thompson CC, Thompson FL. Photobacterium sanctipauli sp. nov. isolated from bleached Madracis decactis (Scleractinia) in the St Peter & St Paul Archipelago, Mid-Atlantic Ridge, Brazil. PeerJ 2014; 2:e427. [PubMed].
  25. Figge MJ, Cleenwerck I, van Uijen A, De Vos P, Huys G, Robertson L. Photobacterium piscicola sp. nov., isolated from marine fish and spoiled packed cod. Syst Appl Microbiol 2014; 37:329-335. [PubMed].
  26. Okuzumi M, Hiraishi A, Kobayashi T, Fujii T. Photobacterium histaminum sp. nov., a histamine-producing marine bacterium. Int J Syst Bacteriol 1994; 44:631-636.
  27. Gomez-Gil B, Roque A, Rotllant G, Peinado L, Romalde JL, Doce A, Cabanillas-Beltrán H, Chimetto LA, Thompson FL. Photobacterium swingsii sp. nov., isolated from marine organisms. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2011; 61:315-319. [PubMed].
  28. Chimetto LA, Cleenwerck I, Thompson CC, Brocchi M, Willems A, De Vos P, Thompson FL. Photobacterium jeanii sp. nov., isolated from corals and zoanthids. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2010; 60:2843-2848. [PubMed].
  29. Deep K, Poddar A, Das SK. Photobacterium panuliri sp. nov., an alkalitolerant marine bacterium isolated from eggs of spiny lobster, Panulirus penicillatus from Andaman Sea. Curr Microbiol 2014; 69:660–668. [PubMed].
  30. Li M, Kong D, Wang Y, Ma Q, Han X, Zhou Y, Jiang X, Zhang Y, Ruan Z, Zhang Q. Photobacterium salinisoli sp. nov., isolated from a sulfonylurea herbicide-degrading consortium enriched with saline soil. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2019; 69:3910-3916. [PubMed].
  31. Weerawongwiwat V, Yoon S, Kim J-H, Yoon J-H, Lee JS, Sukhoom A, Kim W. Photobacterium arenosum sp. nov., isolated from marine sediment sand. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2021; 71:. [PubMed].
  32. Wang X, Li Y, Xue C-X, Li B, Zhou S, Liu L, Zhang X-H. Photobacterium chitinilyticum sp. nov., a marine bacterium isolated from seawater at the bottom of the East China Sea. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2019; 69:1477-1483. [PubMed].
  33. Enciso-Ibarra J, González-Castillo A, Soto-Rodriguez SA, Enciso-Ibarra K, Bolán-Mejia C, Gomez-Gil B. Photobacterium lucens sp. nov., Isolated from a Cultured Shrimp Penaeus vannamei. Curr Microbiol 2020; 77:1111-1116. [PubMed].
  34. Seo HJ, Bae SS, Lee JH, Kim SJ. Photobacterium frigidiphilum sp. nov., a psychrophilic, lipolytic bacterium isolated from deep-sea sediments of Edison Seamount. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2005; 55:1661-1666. [PubMed].
  35. Jung SY, Jung YT, Oh TK, Yoon JH. Photobacterium lutimaris sp. nov., isolated from a tidal flat sediment in Korea. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2007; 57:332-336. [PubMed].
  36. Yoon JH, Lee JK, Kim YO, Oh TK. Photobacterium lipolyticum sp. nov., a bacterium with lipolytic activity isolated from the Yellow Sea in Korea. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2005; 55:335-339. [PubMed].
  37. Seo HJ, Bae SS, Yang SH, Lee JH, Kim SJ. Photobacterium aplysiae sp. nov., a lipolytic marine bacterium isolated from eggs of the sea hare Aplysia kurodai. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2005; 55:2293-2296. [PubMed].
  38. Thompson FL, Thompson CC, Naser S, Hoste B, Vandemeulebroecke K, Munn C, Bourne D, Swings J. Photobacterium rosenbergii sp. nov. and Enterovibrio coralii sp. nov., vibrios associated with coral bleaching. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2005; 55:913-917. [PubMed].
  39. Kim B-C, amd Poo H, Kim MN, Lee KH, Lee J, Rhee M-S, Shin K-S. Photobacterium atrarenae sp. nov. a novel bacterium isolated from sea sand. Curr Microbiol 2011; 63:433–438. [PubMed].
  40. Liu Y, Liu L-Z, Song L, Zhou Y-G, Qi F-J, Liu Z-P. Photobacterium aquae sp. nov., isolated from a recirculating mariculture system. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2014; 64:475-480. [PubMed].
  41. Machado H, Giubergia S, Mateiu RV, Gram L. Photobacterium galatheae sp. nov., a bioactive bacterium isolated from a mussel in the Solomon Sea. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2015; 65:4503-4507. [PubMed].
  42. No reference is available 2015