Taxon DOI
Garrity et al. 2006 emend. Boden et al. 2017
Taxonomic Rank
Nomenclatural Taxonomy [1980-2016]
Incertae sedis taxa are placed using SOSCC (Garrity and Lilburn 2008)
Taxon RecordName Record
(sic) Garrity et al. 2021
Garrity et al. 2006
Garrity et al. 2006 emend. Boden et al. 2017
None 2015
Toenshoff et al. 2012
Thao et al. 2002
Du et al. 1994
Alawi et al. 2007
Gonella et al. 2011
McCutcheon and Moran 2010
Toenshoff et al. 2012
Nakabachi et al. 2013
Ramírez-Puebla et al. 2010
Song et al. 2020
None 2015
Garrity et al. 2006
Tønjum 2006 emend. Chen et al. 2021
Garrity et al. 2006 emend. Boden et al. 2017
(sic) Garrity et al. 2003
Garrity et al. 2006
Watanabe et al. 2015
Type Status
The taxonomic placement of this class within the root Universal Root.

  Woese et al. 1990
  (None 2015) Woese et al. 1990
  (sic) Garrity et al. 2021
  Garrity et al. 2006 emend. Boden et al. 2017

The taxonomy from the rank of class and below is based upon currently published taxonomic opinion. For a complete taxonomy, refer to The Taxonomic Outline of Bacteria and Archaea, Release 7.7.
When referring to this Abstract, please use its Digital Object Identifier and cite NamesforLife.
Taxon Abstract for the class Betaproteobacteria Garrity et al. 2006 emend. Boden et al. 2017. NamesforLife, LLC. Retrieved .
This information was last reviewed on August 11, 2020.


  1. Nakabachi A, Ueoka R, Oshima K, Teta R, Mangoni A, Gurgui M, Oldham NJ, van Echten-Deckert G, Okamura K, Yamamoto K, Inoue H, Ohkuma M, Hongoh Y, Miyagishima S-y, Hattori M, Piel J, Fukatsu T. Defensive bacteriome symbiont with a drastically reduced genome. Curr Biol 2013; 23:1478-1484. [PubMed].
  2. Du Y, Maslov DA, Chang KP. Monophyletic origin of beta-division proteobacterial endosymbionts and their coevolution with insect trypanosomatid protozoa Blastocrithidia culicis and Crithidia spp. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1994; 91:8437-41. [PubMed].
  3. Garrity GM, Bell JA, Lilburn T. Class II. Betaproteobacteria class. nov. In: Garrity GM, Brenner DJ, Krieg NR, Staley JT (eds), Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, Second Edition, Volume 2, Part C, Springer, New York, 2005, p. 575.
  4. Song Y, Jiang C-Y, Liang Z-L, Wang B-J, Jiang Y, Yin Y, Zhu H-Z, Qin Y-L, Cheng R-X, Liu Z-P, Liu Y, Jin T, Corvini PF-X, Rabaey K, Wang A-J, Liu S-J. Casimicrobium huifangae gen. nov., sp. nov., a Ubiquitous "Most-Wanted" Core Bacterial Taxon from Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants. Appl Environ Microbiol 2020; 86:. [PubMed].
  5. Toenshoff ER, Gruber D, Horn M. Co-evolution and symbiont replacement shaped the symbiosis between adelgids (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) and their bacterial symbionts. Environ Microbiol 2012; 14:1284-95. [PubMed].
  6. Gonella E, Negri I, Marzorati M, Mandrioli M, Sacchi L, Pajoro M, Crotti E, Rizzi A, Clementi E, Tedeschi R, Bandi C, Alma A, Daffonchio D. Bacterial endosymbiont localization in Hyalesthes obsoletus, the insect vector of Bois noir in Vitis vinifera. Appl Environ Microbiol 2011; 77:1423-1435. [PubMed].
  7. McCutcheon JP, Moran NA. Functional convergence in reduced genomes of bacterial symbionts spanning 200 My of evolution. Genome Biol Evol 2010; 2:708-718. [PubMed].
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  9. Garrity GM, Holt JG. The Road Map to the Manual. In: Garrity GM, Boone DR, Castenholz RW (eds), Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, Second Edition, Volume 1, Springer, New York, 2001, p. 119-169.
  10. Watanabe T, Kojima H, Fukui M. Sulfuriferula multivorans gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from a freshwater lake, reclassification of 'Thiobacillus plumbophilus' as Sulfuriferula plumbophilus sp. nov., and description of Sulfuricellaceae fam. nov. and Sulfuricellales ord. nov. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2015; 65:1504-1508. [PubMed].
  11. Garrity GM, Bell JA, Lilburn T. Taxonomic outline of the Procaryotes. In: Garrity GM, Bell JA, Lilburn TG (eds), Taxonomic Outline of the Procaryotes, Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, Second Edition. Release 4.0, Fourth Edition, Springer-Verlag, New York, 2003, p. 1-39.
  12. Thao ML, Gullan PJ, Baumann P. Secondary (gamma-Proteobacteria) endosymbionts infect the primary (beta-Proteobacteria) endosymbionts of mealybugs multiple times and coevolve with their hosts. Appl Environ Microbiol 2002; 68:3190-3197. [PubMed].
  13. Ramírez-Puebla ST, Rosenblueth M, Chávez-Moreno CK, de Lyra MCCP, Tecante A, Martínez-Romero E. Molecular phylogeny of the genus Dactylopius (Hemiptera: Dactylopiidae) and identification of the symbiotic bacteria. Environ Entomol 2010; 39:1178-1183. [PubMed].
  14. Toenshoff ER, Kvellestad A, Mitchell SO, Steinum T, Falk K, Colquhoun DJ, Horn M. A novel betaproteobacterial agent of gill epitheliocystis in seawater farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). PLoS One 2012; 7:e32696-e32696. [PubMed].
  15. Kojima H, Watanabe M, Fukui M. Sulfuritortus calidifontis gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel sulfur oxidizer isolated from a hot spring microbial mat. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2017; 67:1355-1358. [PubMed].
  16. Kato S, Krepski S, Chan C, Itoh T, Ohkuma M. Ferriphaselus amnicola gen. nov., sp. nov., a neutrophilic, stalk-forming, iron-oxidizing bacterium isolated from an iron-rich groundwater seep. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2014; 64:921-925. [PubMed].